Gut Health References

These are the scientific references for all facts and figures associated with gut health.

Gut Health References

*References 1,2,3,4,8,9 – Data is based on healthy adult population

Goyal RK, Hirano I. The enteric nervous system. N Engl J Med. 1996 April 25; 334(17):1106-15

2 Bäckhed F, Ley RE, Sonnenburg JL, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science 2005;307:1915-1920

Grice EA, Segre JA. The human microbiome: our second genome. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2012;13:151-70

Furness JB, Kunze WA, Clerc N. Nutrient tasting and signalling mechanisms in the gut. II. The intestine as a sensory organ: neural, endocrine, and immune responses. AM J Physiol. 1999 Nov; 277 (5 Pt 1): G922-8

Matamoros S, Gras-Leguen C, Le Vacon F, Potel G, de La Cochetiere MF. Development of intestinal microbiota in infants and its impact on health. Trends Microbiol. 2013 Apr;21(4):167-73

McDermott A, Huffnagle B. The microbiome and regulation of mucosal immunity. Immunology. 2013;142:24–31

Parfrey LW, Knight R. Spatial and temporal variability of human microbiota. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Jul;18 Suppl 4:8-11

Baganz NL, Blakely RD. A dialogue between the immune system and brain, spoken in the language of Serotonin. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013 Jan 16; 4(1):48-63

Helander HF, Fändriks L. Surface area of the digestive tract – revisited. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun; 49(6):681-9

10 Arslanoglu et al. 2008. Journal of Nutrition, 138:1091-1095.

11 Bischoff S. Gut Health: A new objective in medicine? BMC Med. 2011; 9:24

12 Ziegler, E.E. and S.J. Carlson, Early nutrition of very low birth weight infants. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, 2009. 22(3): p. 191-7

13 Kashyap, S., et al., Growth, nutrient retention, and metabolic response in low birth weight infants fed varying intakes of protein and energy. J Pediatr, 1988. 113(4): p. 713-21

14 Hurtado EK, Claussen AH, Scott KG. Early childhood anaemia and mild and moderate mental retardation. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69:115-119

15 Kashyap, S., et al., Growth, nutrient retention, and metabolic response in low birth weight infants fed varying intakes of protein and energy. J Pediatr, 1988. 113(4): p 713-21

16 Gerritsen J, Smidt H, Rijkers GT,de Vos WM. Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics. Genes Nutr. Aug 2011; 6(3): 209-240

17 Martin R, Nauta AJ, Amor KB, Knippels LMJ, Knol J, Garssen J. Early Life: gut microbiota and immune development in infancy. Beneficial Microbes. 2010;1(4): 367-382

18 Keunen K, van Elburg RM, van Bel F, Banders MJNL. Impact of nutrition on brain development and its neuroprotective implications following preterm birth. Pediatr Res. 2015 Jan;77(1-2):148-155.

19 Lyte M. Microbial endocrinology in the microbiome-gut-brain axis: How bacterial production and utilization of neurochemicals influence behaviour. PLoS Pathog. Nov 2013; 9(11): e100372

20 Borre Y, O’Keefe GW, Clarke G, et al. Microbiota and neurodevelopmental windows: implications for brain disorders. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 2014;20:509–18.

21 Wopereis H, Oozeer R, Knipping K, Belzer C, Knol J. The first thousand days - intestinal microbiology of early life: establishing a symbiosis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014 Aug;25(5):428-38.

22 Scholtens, P, et al. The Early Settlers: Intestinal Microbiology in Early Life. Ann Rev Food Sci Technol. 2012;3:21.1–21.23.

23 Early Childhood Development by UNICEF (

24 Binns N. International Life Sciences Institute (ISLI) Europe: Concise Monograph Series. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gut microbiota. Available at: Accessed 30 December 2014.

25 Munyaka P, Khafipour E, Ghia JE. External influence of early childhood establishment of gut microbiota and subsequent health implications. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2014;2:109.

26 Vandenplas Y, De Greef E, Devreker T, Veereman-Wauters G, Hauser B. Probiotics and prebiotics in infants and children. Curr Infect Dis Rep. Jun 2013;15(3);251-6 . doi: 10.1007/s11908-013-0334-4

27 Partty A et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2013. 167 (10):p 977-8

28 Wake M. Et al, Pediatrics, 2006 117(3):p 836-42

29 Willers SM,Brunekreef B, Smit HA, van der Beek EM, Gehring U, de Jongtse, Kerkhof M, Koppelman GH, Wijga AH. BMI development of normal weight and overweight children in PIAMA study. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6): e39517

30 Brown, M t al J Paedatr Child Health, 2009. 45(5):p 254-62

31 Guinane CM, Cotter PD. Role of the gut microbiota in health and chronic gastrointestinal disease: understanding a hidden metabolic organ. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013. Ju; 6(4): 295

32 Fiocchi A, Pawankar R, Cuello-Garcia C, etal. World Allergy Organization – McMaster University Guidelines for Allergic Disease Prevention (GLAD-P): Probiotics. World Allergy Organ J. 2015 Jan 27;8(1):4.