Ugly effects of second-hand smoke and female fertility
We don't need another reason for why smoking is harmful to both yourself and those around you -- however, if you or your spouse is trying to get pregnant, you better learn about about the effects of second-hand smoke and female fertility.
Ever wondered if there is a real correlation between second-hand smoke and female fertility? You might not like this ugly truth, but here are some cold hard facts about the relationship between second-hand smoke and female fertility .
Women exposed to second-hand smoke, as adults or children, are significantly more likely to face fertility problems and miscarriages.
Scientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center conducted an analysis of more than 4,800 non-smoking women that showed: those who were exposed to secondhand smoke six or more hours per day as children and adults faced a 68% greater chance of having difficulty getting pregnant and suffering one or more miscarriages.
The study, published online in Tobacco Control, found four out of five women reported exposure to second-hand smoke during their lifetime. Half of the women grew up in a home with smoking parents and nearly two-thirds of them were exposed to some secondhand smoking at the time of the survey.
More than 40% of those women had difficulty getting pregnant -- infertility lasting more than a year -- or suffered miscarriages, some repeatedly, the study said.
Now that you know the effects of second-hand smoke and female fertility. Read on for a doctor's tips on how to quit! Or get your significant other to kick the habit.
Tips to quitting smoking
We asked Associate Professor Munidasa Winslow, Consultant Psychiatrist at Raffles Hospital, for some tips to effectively quit smoking.
1) Go cold turkey
A smoker can go cold turkey, in which he goes without cigarettes immediately, until he doesn’t get the urge to smoke anymore.
2) Cut down smoking gradually
He/she could also cut down the number of cigarettes smoked gradually, reducing the number smoked each day
3) Use aids
Quit Smoking Aids, otherwise known as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), may also offer some help. NRTs are intended to replace nicotine obtained from smoking and they help the smoker control his nicotine cravings and reduce his urges to smoke in the early days of quitting.
There are different types of NRTs, available over the counter at pharmacies and they include:
- Nicotine patch
- Nicotine gum
- Nasal spray
- Nicotine inhaler
- Nicotine lozenges
There is also prescription medicine available to help a smoker quit his/her habit. These can only be obtained from a doctor and are designed to reduce cravings for nicotine and through this mechanism, help smokers quit. These include:
- Varenicline (trade name Champix), a smoking cessation drug that simultaneously reduces nicotine cravings and decreases the pleasurable effects of smoking.
- Bupropion (trade name Zyban or Wellbutrin), an antidepressant that reduces cravings for nicotine and help to relieve symptoms of depression. Bupropion’s efficacy is similar to that of NRTs.
Do you have any tips for quitting smoking? Share your tips with us below!